카메라용어 설명

풀프레임(Full frame DSLR)카메라란 ?


필름크기,CCD크기,CMOS크기,감광막

필름크기,CCD크기,CMOS크기,감광막


DSLR 카메라의 고급성능을 설명할때 1:X 즉 1:1.5X 등을 말하는데 이 이야기는 카메라의 촬상은 필름으로부터 시작됬기 때문에 필름을 기준으로 하며 가끔 큰 필름을 기준으로하는 특별한 카메라도 있지만 통상 일반적인 35mm 필름을 기준으로 해서 디지탈카메라의 필름부분에 해당하는 촬상소자에 몇%의 화상이 맺히는가의 비율로서 필름 35mm 대비 100%일때 풀프레임(Full frame)카메라라 즉 1:1 카메라 혹은 1:!바디라고 한다.

이런 풀프레임일때는 그렇지않은 카메라의 피사물에대한 실제적 표출능력이 뒤어나는것은 당연하다.
동일 화소의 CCD 일지라도 3/4프레임의 화상과 풀프레임의 화상은 월등한 차이가 있기마련이다.

위의 그림에서 넓이가 정밀한 계산적인 넓이와는 맞지않지만 이해를 돕기위해서 CCD프레임과 필름35mm의 촬상부 넓이를 보여드립니다.

DSLR은 보통 35mm필름카메라를 기반을 사용을 하지며(가끔은 중형필름 기반을 사용을 하는 DSLR도 존재함)현재 거의 모든 디카도 35mm기준 CCD를 말합니다.

풀프레임은 35mm 필름과 동일 크기의 촬상면을 가진CCD를 사용 하는 DSLR을 의미 하지요.

즉  1:1바디는 이 필름기준 100% 촬상면을 사용하는 CCD를 말합니다.

보통 중급형이나 보급형 DSLR의 경우에는 필름보다 1.5배(니콘/소니/펜탁스=APS-C사이즈라고 합니다.) 작은 CCD를 사용을 하고, 올림푸스는 2배(포서드 사이즈), 캐논은 1.6배 작은 CMOS를 사용을 합니다.

가끔 CMOS라고 표현하는데 이말은 촬상소자 즉 CCD를 만든 반도체가 C형 MOS 반도체를 사용했다는 말임으로 같은 뜻이며  CCD와 CMOS는 반도체 특성상 약간 성질이나 결과가 다르지만 영상을 촬상하는 기능은 동일하며 소비전력이나 화질의 특성은 조금 다르지만 우열을 말하기는 곤란하며  둘다 필름을 대신하는 디지털 카메라 부분인것은 동일합니다.




글:DRAMATIQUE
URL:http://dramatique.tistory.com/502


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  1. Favicon of https://dramatique.tistory.com BlogIcon 블로그에세이-BlogEssay Dramatique 2012.02.15 15:39 신고  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    카메라용어 설명
    풀프레임(Full frame DSLR)카메라란 ?


    필름크기,CCD크기,CMOS크기,감광막

    필름크기,CCD크기,CMOS크기,감광막

    DSLR 카메라의 고급성능을 설명할때 1:X 즉 1:1.5X 등을 말하는데 이 이야기는 카메라의 촬상은 필름으로부터 시작됬기 때문에 필름을 기준으로 하며 가끔 큰 필름을 기준으로하는 특별한 카메라도 있지만 통상 일반적인 35mm 필름을 기준으로 해서 디지탈카메라의 필름부분에 해당하는 촬상소자에 몇%의 화상이 맺히는가의 비율로서 필름 35mm 대비 100%일때 풀프레임(Full frame)카메라라 즉 1:1 카메라 혹은 1:!바디라고 한다.

  2. Favicon of https://dramatique.tistory.com BlogIcon 블로그에세이-BlogEssay Dramatique 2012.02.15 15:39 신고  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    카메라용어 설명
    풀프레임(Full frame DSLR)카메라란 ?


    필름크기,CCD크기,CMOS크기,감광막

    필름크기,CCD크기,CMOS크기,감광막

    DSLR 카메라의 고급성능을 설명할때 1:X 즉 1:1.5X 등을 말하는데 이 이야기는 카메라의 촬상은 필름으로부터 시작됬기 때문에 필름을 기준으로 하며 가끔 큰 필름을 기준으로하는 특별한 카메라도 있지만 통상 일반적인 35mm 필름을 기준으로 해서 디지탈카메라의 필름부분에 해당하는 촬상소자에 몇%의 화상이 맺히는가의 비율로서 필름 35mm 대비 100%일때 풀프레임(Full frame)카메라라 즉 1:1 카메라 혹은 1:!바디라고 한다.


전문가용 DSLR 니콘 D3X 리뷰

Nikon Intros 24 Megapixel D3X DSLR
니콘은 2008년을 장식하는 시점에 최고의 역작  D3X를 내놓았다.이 모델은 프로 사진작가의 비지니스용으로 제작된 전문가용 DSLR 최고라인업된 제품이라고 제작사는 말한다.

니콘은 기존 프레스용 모델 D3와 함께 이번 D3X는 완전한 최고품DSLR라인업을 이루게 되었다.
이 D3X는 2008년을 마지막으로 최신 기종이다.

The new flagship Nikon D3X DSLR offers 24.5 megapixel resolution.

Nikon has introduced its new top-of-the-line digital SLR camera, the Nikon D3X, a 24-5 megapixel FX-format DSLR that offers continuous 5 frames-per-second shooting at full resolution, along with a complete slate of high-end features sure to please professional photographers and simply wow the rest of us. The D3X can capture images at wieher 12-bit or 14-bit resolution to ensure high image quality…and at 24.5 megapixels, each RAW image is roughly 138 MB in size.

"The new 24.5-megapixel FX-format D3X D-SLR provides the extreme resolution and high dynamic range capabilities needed to meet the extraordinary needs of photographic disciplines such as high fashion, commercial advertising, and fine art," said Nikon's general manager for SLR systems product marketing Edward Fasano, in a statement. "The D3X delivers this remarkable capability while fitting seamlessly within the Nikon system, taking full advantage of Nikon's world-renowned collection of NIKKOR lenses and Speedlights."

A full overview of features is impossible here, but a few highlights include a 51-point autofocus system, two Live View modes for handheld and tripod use, up to 27×zoom on the 3-inch preview LCD screen for framing shots (and a virtual horizon on the viewfinder), dual CF card slots (with overflow, backup, and copy capabilities), ISO sensitivity down to 1600 (with expansion options taking it down to ISO 6400), a swath of of video outputs (NTSC, PAL, HDMI), USB connectivity, and (of course) complete compatibility with Nikon's NIKKOR lenses, SpeedLights, and other system accessories. The unit also offers in-camera image editing (including trim, color balance, filter effects, red-eye correction, and monochrome settings), an external flash shoe, self-timer, and even a voice memo function.

And, of course, all this comes at a price: Nikon will begin offering the D3X this month at a suggested price of $7,999.95—but we understand that includes a camera strap.
현재 일본 출시가 90만엔, 원화가 1300만원 정도임.


알려진 스펙을보면 아래와 같다.
Same Pro-style, weather-resistant, Mg-alloy Body as the Nikon D3.

  • 24.5 Mega-pixel FX-format, 35.9 x 24mm CMOS sensor with 5:4 and DX
  • crop modes.
  • Framerates of Five FX images-per-second or Seven 10MP DX images.
  • 51-point MultiCAM3500FX Autofocus System (same as D3).
  • 16-bit EXPEED Image processor, an industry first.  Helps to produce 75MB RAW files.
  • ISO 100 to 1600, expandable to ISO50, ISO3200, and ISO6400.
  • 3-inch, 920,000 pixel LCD Screen with Contrast-detect Live View
  • Dual Compact Flash card slots written to at 35MB/sec.  

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풀프레임 DSLR 카메라 탐방
Full Frame DSLR Cameras Review

최근 소니의 알파900이 세계최고 2460만화소의 풀프레임을 내놓으면서 DSLR 매니어들의 관심을 증폭시키고 있는데 얼마전까지 캐논의 괴물 EOS 5D mark-2 는 과연 소니의 알파900보다 뒤지는 성능인가 알아 본다.

성능을 보는 차원에서는 브랜드 이미지나 그 회사의 전문성은 배제한다.
소니는 전자메이커이고 캐논은 카메라메이커임 으로 브랜드를 비교해선 안되기 때문이다.


   

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 Canon EOS5D MK2

 Sony 알파 A900

Key Specifications:
  • New 21.1 Megapixel CMOS sensor with improved EOS Integrated Cleaning System (E.I.C.S.)
  • New Full HD 1080 resolution movie recording
  • 3.9 frames per second continuous shooting
  • High performance DIGIC 4 providing superb image quality
  • Maximum 310 large JPEG images in a single burst with a UDMA card
  • 3.0” VGA (920k dots) Clear View LCD
  • ISO 100-6400 (expansion from 50 up to 25,600)
  • 9 AF points + 6 Assist AF points
List price
(body only)
• US: $ 2,699
• EU: € 2,499
• UK: £ 2,299
List price
(EF 24-105 L kit)
• US: $ 3,499
• EU: € 3,299
• UK: £ 3,049
Body material Magnesium alloy
Sensor * • 36 x 24 mm CMOS sensor
• Full 35 mm size frame
• RGB Color Filter Array
• Built-in fixed low-pass filter (with self-cleaning unit)
• 22.0 million total pixels
• 21.1 million effective pixels
• 3:2 aspect ratio
Lenses • Canon EF lens mount (does not support EF-S lenses)
• No field of view crop (1.0x)
Dust reduction • "EOS Integrated Cleaning System"
• Self-cleaning sensor unit (filter in front of sensor vibrates at high frequency at start-up and shutdown - can be disabled)
• Dust Delete Data - Data from a test shot is used to 'map' dust spots and can be later removed using Canon DPP Software
Image processor * DIGIC 4
A/D conversion 14 bit
Image sizes (JPEG) * • 5616 x 3744 (21.0 MP)
• 4080 x 2720 (11.1 MP)
• 2784 x 1856 (5.2 MP)
Image sizes (RAW) * • 5616 x 3744 (21.0 MP)
• 3861 x 2574 (10.0 MP)
• 2784 x 1856 (5.2 MP)
File formats *

• RAW (.CR2; 14-bit)
• JPEG (EXIF 2.21) - Fine / Normal
• RAW + JPEG (separate files)
sRAW1, sRAW2 (see above) *

Auto focus • 9-point TTL CMOS sensor
• 6 "Invisible Assist AF points"
• Centre point cross type F5.6 or faster
• Center point additionally sensitive with lenses of F2.8 or faster
• AF working range: -0.5 - 18 EV (at 23°C, ISO 100)
Focus modes • One shot AF
• AI Servo AF
• AI Focus AF
• Manual focus
AF micro adjustment *

• Adjust all lenses by same amount (effectively body adjustment)
• Adjust up to 20 lenses individually

AF point selection • Auto
• Manual
Predictive AF • As close as 8 m (with 300 mm F2.8L lens at 50 kph)
AF assist No (only with external flash)
Metering • TTL full aperture metering 35 zone SPC
• Metering range: 1.0 - 20 EV
Metering modes

• Evaluative 35 zone (linked to any AF point)
• Partial (8% at center)
• Spot metering (approx. 3.5% at center)
• Center-weighted average

AE lock • Auto: One Shot AF with evaluative metering
• Manual: AE lock button
Exposure compensation • +/-2.0 EV
• 0.3 or 0.5 EV increments
Exposure bracketing • +/- 2.0 EV
• 0.3 or 0.5 EV increments
Sensitivity *

• ISO 100 - 6400
• 0.3 or 1.0 EV increments
• Auto ISO (100-3200)
• Expansion options:
ISO 50 (L1)
ISO 12800 (H1)
ISO 25600 (H2)

Shutter • Focal-plane shutter
• 150,000 exposure durability
• 30 - 1/8000 sec
• 0.3 or 0.5 EV increments
• Flash X-Sync: 1/200 sec
• Bulb
Aperture values • F1.0 - F91
• 0.3 or 0.5 EV increments
• Actual aperture range depends on lens used
White balance • Auto
• Daylight
• Shade
• Cloudy
• Tungsten
• Fluorescent
• Flash
• Custom
• Kelvin (2500 - 10000 K in 100 K steps)
WB bracketing • +/-3 levels
• 3 images
• Blue / Amber or Magenta / Green bias
WB shift • Blue (-9) To Amber (+9)
• Magenta (-9) to Green (+9)
Picture style • Standard
• Portrait
• Landscape
• Neutral
• Faithful
• Monochrome
• User def. 1
• User def. 2
• User def. 3
Custom image parameters • Sharpness: 0 to 7
• Contrast: -4 to +4
• Saturation: -4 to +4
• Color tone: -4 to +4
• B&W filter: N, Ye, Or, R, G
• B&W tone: N, S, B, P, G
Image processing options *

• Highlight tone priority
• Auto lighting optimizer (4 settings)
• Long exposure noise reduction
• High ISO noise reduction (4 settings)
• Auto correction of lens peripheral illumination (vignetting)

Color space • sRGB
• Adobe RGB
Viewfinder * • Eye-level pentaprism
• 98% frame coverage
• Magnification: 0.71x (-1 diopter with 50 mm lens at infinity)
• Eyepoint: Approx. 21 mm
• Interchangeable focusing screen (3 other types optional)
• Dioptric adjustment: -3.0 to +1.0 diopter
Mirror • Quick-return half mirror (transmission:reflection ratio 40:60)
• Mirror lock-up (once or multiple exposures)
Viewfinder info *

• AF information:
AF points
Focus confirmation light
• Exposure information:
Shutter speed
Aperture value
ISO speed (always displayed)
AE lock
Exposure level/compensation
Spot metering circle
Exposure warning
AEB
• Flash information:
Flash ready
High-speed sync
FE lock
Flash exposure compensation
• Image information:
White balance correction
CF card information
Monochrome shooting
Maximum burst (2 digit display)
Highlight tone priority (D+)

LCD monitor * • 3.0 " TFT LCD
• 920,000 pixels
• Automatic 3 level brightness adjustment plus 7 manual levels
• 170 ° viewing angle
• Dual anti-reflection ('Clear View')
LCD Live view *

• Live TTL display of scene from CMOS image sensor
• 100% frame coverage
• 30 fps
• Real-time evaluative metering using CMOS image sensor
• Best view or exposure simulation
• Silent mode
• Grid optional (x2)
• Magnify optional (5x or 10x at AF point)
• Three AF modes - Live mode / Quick mode / Face Detection
• Live histogram (Luminance or RGB)
• Remote live view using EOS Utility 2.0 (via USB or WiFi/Ethernet using WFT)

Movie recording *

• Available optionally during Live view mode
• 1920 x 1080 (16:9) up to 12 mins (Quicktime 1080p H.264; 38.6 Mbits/sec)
• 640 x 480 (4:3) up to 24 mins (Quicktime 480p H.264; 17.3 Mbits/sec)
• Max file size 4 GB
• Quicktime MOV format (H.264 video, PCM sound)
• 30 fps

Record review • Off
• On (histogram via INFO button)
• Display mode same as last used Play mode
• 2 / 4 / 8 sec / Hold
Playback modes

1. Single image with exposure, file number, storage slot
2. As 1 but also image count and quality
3. Detailed exposure information, thumbnail and luminance histogram
4. Less detailed exposure info., thumbnail, luminance and RGB histograms

Playback features • Optional blinking highlight alert
• Optional AF point display
• Magnified view (up to 10x)
• 2x2 or 3x3 thumbnail index
• Jump (by 1, 10, 100 images, screen, date, folder, movies, stills)*
• Delete / Protect
Flash

• No built-in flash unit
• E-TTL II auto flash / metered manual
• Flash compensation +/-2.0 EV in 0.3 or 0.5 EV increments
• X-Sync: 1/200 sec
• Hot-shoe & PC Terminal

External flash • E-TTL II auto flash with EX-series Speedlites
• In-camera flash configuration (currently only 580 EX II)
• Wireless multi-flash support
• PC Sync
Shooting modes

• Auto
• Creative Auto *
• Program AE (P)
• Shutter priority AE (Tv)
• Aperture priority AE (Av)
• Manual (M)
• Custom 1
• Custom 2 *
• Custom 3 *

Drive modes

• Single
• Continuous: 3.9 fps *
• Self-timer: 2 or 10 sec (2 sec with mirror lock-up)

Burst buffer • Large/Fine JPEG: 78 frames (310 with UDMA card) *
• RAW: 13 frames *
Orientation sensor Yes
Auto rotation • On (recorded and LCD display)
• On (recorded only)
• Off
Custom functions * 25 custom functions with 71 settings in 4 groups
Menu languages *

• 25 Languages
• English, German, French, Dutch, Danish, Portuguese, Finnish, Italian, Norwegian, Swedish, Spanish, Greek, Russian, Polish, Czech, Hungarian, Romanian, Ukrainian, Turkish, Arabic, Thai, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Korean and Japanese

Firmware User upgradable
Portrait grip • Optional WFT-E4 (WiFi / LAN / USB mass storage)
• Optional BG-E6 battery grip
Connectivity *

• USB 2.0 Hi-Speed
• AV out (video & audio *)
• HDMI connector *
• Microphone input *
• PC Sync flash terminal
• Communication terminal on base for WFT-E4
• InfraRed *

Storage * • Compact Flash Type I or II (inc. FAT32)
• Supports UDMA cards *
• Copyright metatag support
• Canon Original Data Security Kit supported ("Original Image Data")
Power * • Lithium-Ion LP-E6 rechargeable battery (supplied & charger)
• CR1616 for date & settings
• Approx. 850 shots at 20°C
• Battery indication 6 levels & percentage (memorized)
Dimensions * 152 x 114 x 75 mm (6.0 x 4.5 x 2.9 in)
Weight * • No battery: 810 g (1.8 lb)
Accessories

• Viewfinder: Eyecup Eb, E-series Dioptric Adjustment Lens with Rubber Frame Eb, Eyepiece Extender EP-EX15, Focusing Screens Eg, Angle Finder C
• Wireless File Transmitter WFT-E4
• Battery Grip BG-E6
• All EF lenses (excludes EF-S lenses)
• Canon Speedlites (220EX, 380EX, 420EX, 430EX, 430EX II, 550EX, 580EX, 580EX II, Macro-Ring-Lite, MR-14EX, Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX, Speedlite Transmitter ST-E2)
• Remote control with N3 type contact, Wireless Controller LC-5, Remote Controller RC-1, Remote Controller RC-5
• Original Data Security Kit OSK-E3

Key Specifications:
  • 24.6 MP 35mm format full-frame CMOS sensor (highest res in class)
  • SteadyShot INSIDE full frame image sensor shift stabilization (world first)
  • High Speed Dual Bionz processors
  • Eye-level glass Penta-prism OVF, 100% coverage, 0.74x magnification
  • 9 point AF with 10 assist points, center dual-cross AF w/2.8 sensor
  • 5 frames per second burst, newly developed mirror box
  • Intelligent Preview Function
  • 3 User programmable custom memory modes on mode dial
  • Advanced Dynamic Range Optimizer (5 step selectable)
  • 40 segment honeycomb metering
  • 3.0" 921K pixel Photo Quality (270 dpi) LCD display, 100% coverage
  • Direct HDMI output
  • ISO 200-3200 (ISO 100-6400 expanded range)
  • User interchangeable focusing screens (3 options)
  • CF Type I/II and MS slots, LI-ION battery, STAMINA 880 shots
  • Weight 850g (without battery, card, accs)
  • New Image Data Converter SR software (includes vignetting control)
  • New Vertical Grip
  • Supplied with wireless remote control
  • Magnesium Alloy body and rubber seals for dust and moisture resistance
  • AF micro adjustment

body price; available late October 2008

$2999.99

Low: $2999
Avg: $3237.24
Body material • Magnesium Alloy body chassis
• high grade plastic exterior
• Environmental seals
Sensor • 35.9 x 24.0 mm CMOS sensor 'Exmor'
• RGB Color Filter Array
• Built-in fixed low-pass filter
• 25.7 million total pixels
• 24.6 million effective pixels
• On-chip Column A/D Conversion & NR
Processor Dual Bionz
Crop Factor 1x
Image sizes (3:2) • 6048 x 4032 (24M 3:2)
• 4400 x 2936 (13M 3:2)
• 3024 x 2016 (6.1M 3:2)
• 3924 x 2656 (11M APSC)
• 2896 x 1928 (5.6M APSC)
• 1984 x 1320 (2.6M APSC)
Auto Focus • TTL CCD line sensors (9-points, center dual cross types + 10 assist sensors)
Custom modes Three
Bracketing • Single or continuous bracketing
• 3 or 5 frames
• 0.3, 0.5 , 0.7 or 2.0 EV steps
(2.0 EV steps for 3 exposures only)
Noise reduction • Long exposure for exposures longer than 1 second (User controllable: On / Off)
• High ISO NR High/Normal/Low/Off at ISO 1600 or higher
Continuous • H: Approx 5fps max
• L: Approx 3fps max
• RAW: Up to 12 frames
• cRAW (compressed): Up to 25 frames
• RAW+JPEG: Up to 10 frames
• JPEG (XFINE): Up to 11 frames
• JPEG (STD/FINE): 285/105
Viewfinder • Optical glass pentaprism
• Spherical Acute Matte focusing screen (interchangeable)
• Frame coverage approx 100%
• Magnification approx. 0.74x
• Eye-relief 20 mm from eyepiece, 21 mm from frame
• Eyepiece shutter
Vertical Grip Optional vertical Grip VG-C90AM
Dimensions 156 x 117 x 82 mm
Weight • No battery: 850 g
• With battery: 895 g
Other • Intelligent Preview mode
• New raw converter software
• AF Micro Adjustment
• Top LCD panel
Power-on Time 0.5 sec
Shutter Lag,
Full Autofocus
0.183 sec
Shutter Lag,
Prefocused
0.072 sec
Shot to Shot time 0.40 sec
Continuous Speed 4.98 fps
(11 shots)
Viewfinder accuracy
(Optical)
99%
Battery Life
(CIPA standard)
880 shots
 


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  1. Favicon of https://dramatique.tistory.com BlogIcon 블로그에세이-BlogEssay Dramatique 2012.02.12 05:53 신고  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    풀프레임 DSLR 카메라 탐방
    Full Frame DSLR Cameras Review

    최근 소니의 알파900이 세계최고 2460만화소의 풀프레임을 내놓으면서 DSLR 매니어들의 관심을 증폭시키고 있는데 얼마전까지 캐논의 괴물 EOS 5D mark-2 는 과연 소니의 알파900보다 뒤지는 성능인가 알아 본다.

    성능을 보는 차원에서는 브랜드 이미지나 그 회사의 전문성은 배제한다.
    소니는 전자메이커이고 캐논은 카메라메이커임 으로 브랜드를 비교해선 안되기 때문이다.



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